Tarasovka info – Rules for the game in chess

Mr. Freeman. The one about whom all Runet is talking about.

Without Kevordo

Chess -a board logical game with special figures on a 64-cellboard for two rivals, combining the elements of art (in the part of the chess composition), science and sports. The name originates from the Persian language: Shah and mat, What means The ruler (Shah) died.

Group of players, against each other or against one player can also play chess; Such groups are usually called consultants. The game obeys certain rules that are supplemented by the FIDE rules during tournaments. The correspondence game, by phone, on the Internet is regulated by additional rules. Chess options have other rules (with the same figures and a board), and in the chess composition the compiler can change the size of the board, introduce new figures, change the rules, etc. In mathematics, various aspects of the chess game are studied (for example, the classic “task of the horse” and the “task of eight ferzy”), including using computer modeling.

History of chess

The history of chess has at least one and a half thousand years. It is believed that the Clae, the Chaturang game appeared in India no later than the VI century of our era. As the game spreads to the Arab East, then to Europe and Africa, the rules changed. In the form that the game currently has, it was formed by the 15th century, the rules were finally standardized in the 19th century, when international tournaments began to be systematically held.

Board and initial position

The game takes place on a board divided into equal square cells, or Fields. The size of the board is 8×8 cells. The vertical rows of fields (verticals) are indicated by Latin letters from A to H from left to right, horizontal rows (horizontal) – with numbers from 1 to 8 from the bottom up; Each field is indicated by a combination of the corresponding letters and numbers. The fields are painted in dark and light colors (and are called, respectively, black and white) so that the fields adjacent to vertical and horizontal fields are painted in different colors. The board is located so that the near corner field to the right of the player is white (for whites this is the H1 field, for black ones – the A8 field).

The players at the beginning of the game have the same set of figures, conditionally called white and black. In reality, white figures can be painted in any light color (white, beige, yellow), and black-in any dark (black, brown, dark blue). A player who has white figures is often called “white”, a player who has black ones, “black”.

Each set of figures includes: king ( ), queen ( ), two boats ( ), two elephants ( ), two horses ( ) and eight pawns ( ). In the initial position, the figures of both sides are placed as shown in the diagram. White occupies the first and second horizontals, black – the seventh and eighth.The pawns are located on the second and seventh horizontal, respectively.

White chess parties, then the parties make the moves one by one, moving one figure with every turn. The moves of each figure are shown in diagrams below. On the diagram, the signs of “X” marked the fields to which the figure from the field on which it is now can move. If there is another figure in the way of the figure (both of the same color), then it is impossible to move the figure to the fields after it, an exception is a horse that can “jump” through the figures. The course on the field occupied by its figure is impossible. In the course of the field occupied by someone else's figure, it is removed from the board (take). The field is called located under the blow Figures of the enemy or broken, if, in its course, the enemy’s figure could take a figure on this field (regardless of whether there is such a figure on this field).

The pawn is the only figure in which the move without taking differs from the move with the capture (marked in the diagram with white mugs): the pawn can make moves with only a diagonal for one field forward. The moves without taking the pawn do vertically on one field forward. If the pawn has not yet made moves, she can also make a move without taking two fields forward. The direction “forward” is called the direction to the eighth horizontal for white or to the first for black. When the pawn reaches the last horizontal (for white – to the eighth horizontal, for black – to the first), the walking should replace it with any other figure of the same color (at his request), except for the king (Passing the pawn).

The moves of chess figures

Long and short castling

Taking on the aisle

In addition, there are two special moves:

  • Castling – If the king and one of the rooks of the same color did not move from the beginning of the game, then the king and this boat can simultaneously change the position (rock) in one move. When castling, the king is shifted by 2 cells towards the boat, and the boat is placed on the field between the initial and final position of the king. Screaming is impossible if the king or the corresponding rook has already walked. Screaming is temporarily impossible if the field on which the king stands, or the field that he must cross, or the field that he must occupy is under the blow of one of the enemy figures, or if any figure is between the scored king and the boat. Screaming is considered the course of the king, not a rook. The castling should begin with the rearrangement of the king, and only then the boats.
  • Taking on the aisle – When the pawn makes its first move on two cells, through the field located under the blow of the enemy’s pawns, it can be taken by this pawn of the enemy with a retaliatory. At the same time, the fighting pawn walks on the field for a walking pawn (that is, as if it did not go to two, but only on one field, example, see the diagram).Taking on the aisle is permissible only directly in response to the “long” course of the pile of the pile, it is no longer allowed at the next moves.

Shah, Mat and Pat

  • The king, located on a bat, is called standing under a shah. To make a move after which the enemy king is under a shah means Give a shah the king (or declare a shah). It is forbidden to substitute his king under a shah (make a move on a broken field, as well as make a move by another figure, as a result of which the king is under the blow of the enemy’s figure) and leave the king under a shah (if the king is under a shah, then only moves are allowed to eliminate the shah ). You can eliminate the shah in three ways: take a figure under the battle of which the king is located, close from the shah with your own figure (it is impossible if the horse is scroll, or two figures shah at the same time), to the king to the king on the unsubneated field.
  • If the player king is under the shah and the player does not have a single move that allows us to eliminate this shah, this situation is called mat. The purpose of the game is to put the opponent to the king.
  • If the player, with his turn, does not have the opportunity to make a single move according to the rules, but the player king is not under Shah, this situation is called Pat.

The result of the game

The game ends in winning one of the sides or draw.

  • A mat. The player who put the opponent’s king wins.
  • One of the players gave up. The player who decided that further resistance is pointless, can surrender at any time. His opponent is declared the winner.
  • One of the players has expired time. His opponent is declared the winner if he formally has enough material to put the mat (for more details see the “Time Control” section).
  • Technical victory – awarded in the official tournament to the player if his opponent did not appear on the party for a certain time of the Tournament of the Time, or interrupted the party (he began the party, but refused to continue it), or in case of a gross violation of the rules of the tournament or disobedience to the judge. A technical victory can also be awarded for an unsettled game if the player in this round is not an opponent for any reason and the rules of the tournament specifically stipulate this case (for example, if the opponent with whom the party had to be held has left the tournament or with an odd number of players in the tournament in the Swiss system).
  • Pat.
  • The players agreed to a draw, that is, one of the players in his course offered a draw, the other accepted it. For the offer of a draw, it’s enough to say a “draw”. If the enemy makes a move without responding to the proposal of a draw, it is considered rejected. Recently, the so -called Sophia Rules that limit the possibility of players in a draw are used in some tournaments.
  • None of the parties have the minimum number of figures for the mat (for example, only kings and one light figure remained on the board).
  • One of the players has expired, but his opponent does not have enough material to checkmate.
  • Three repetitions of the same position (not necessarily for three moves in a row), and the concept of position here includes the location of the pieces, the order of moves and possible moves (including the right to castling and capture on the aisle for each side). To fix a draw, a player who notices a threefold repetition of a position must contact the referee.
  • Both sides made the last 50 moves without a capture and without a pawn move. As in the previous case, a draw is fixed at the request of any of the players. Previously, the chess code stipulated that in a position where a win is achievable, but 50 moves are not enough for it, and this can be proved, the number of moves needed for a draw can be increased to 100. True, no one has ever used this clause, and subsequently it was canceled, an exception was made for only three types of endings – a rook and a bishop against a rook, two knights against a pawn, and a rook with a pawn against a bishop with a pawn. In the 1970s and 1980s, computer analysis showed that 50 moves were also not enough for many other types of endgames, and the code was supplemented. However, later all exceptions were canceled, and now the 50-move rule is valid in any position.
  • The player overstayed the time in the last period of the game, but his opponent did not try or could not win and played against the clock. If a player has less than 2 minutes of time left before the end of the game, and the opponent is obviously playing for time, the player can stop the clock and ask the referee to declare a draw. The referee has the right, at his own discretion, either to declare a draw immediately, or to postpone the decision (in this case, he must personally observe the game until the end of the game and make a decision after the flag falls), or reject the requirement (in this case, the opponent is given 2 minutes of time) ( FIDE Rules, Article 10).

Scoring

Depending on the result, the player receives the following number of points:

  • Win – 1 point;
  • Draw – ½ point;
  • Loss – 0 points.

In some competitions, points are awarded according to other systems, for example, football: 3 for a win, 1 for a draw and 0 for a loss.

In tournaments where all players (teams) play an equal number of games, the winner is determined by the number of points scored in games or micro-matches (in case of equality, different coefficients are applied).

Chess theory

Chess theory is a collection of studies on various aspects of the game of chess. Its active development began in the 15th century, when the chess rules were established in a form that has remained virtually unchanged to this day.

Party stages

The theory distinguishes three stages of a chess game: opening, middlegame and endgame.

    – the initial stage of the game, lasting the first 10-15 moves. In the opening, the main task of the players is to mobilize their own forces, prepare for a direct collision with the enemy and start such a collision.The debut stage of the game is most well studied in theory, there is a voluminous classification of debuts, recommendations on optimal actions in certain options have been developed, a large number of unsuccessful debut systems are eliminated. – The middle of the game. Stage starting after the debut. It is in it that the main events of the chess party usually take place (situations when the winnings are achieved in debut is very rare). It is characterized by a large number of figures on the board, active maneuvering, attacks and counterattacks, rivalry for key points, primarily for the center. The party can end already at this stage, this usually happens when one of the parties conducts a successful combination. Otherwise, after the capture of a larger number of figures, the party goes to the endglass. – The final stage of the game. It is characterized by a small number of figures on the board. The role of pawns and the king sharply increases sharply in the endguspile. Often the main theme of the game in the endglass is to conduct passing pawns. Endspiel ends with either the victory of one of the parties, or by achieving a position when victory is in principle impossible. In the latter case, there is a draw.

Chess as a game with complete information

Chess is a game with complete information, so the result of the game is predetermined, in the event of at least one of the players of the optimal strategy that guarantees the achievement of winnings (or a draw). Mathematically proven that such a strategy probably exists (for chess, as for any other game with complete information), but at the moment it has not been found for chess. A large number of variants of moves and possible positions impede the “mechanical” calculation of the course of the batch more than a few moves, so in practice the result of the game is unpredictable.

Chess as a sport

International Chess Federation

The main body involved in the organization of international chess competitions is FIDE (FIDE, FR. Fédération International des échecs ) organized in 1924. In many countries of the world, there are also national organizations of chess players.

FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), but chess as such never belonged to Olympic sports. A separate chess Olympiad is held on chess, which is once every two years and is a team competition. The 2010 Olympics was held in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia. Gold medals in men and women won, respectively, Ukraine and Russia-1.

Online game

With the development of the Internet, online showmati are especially popular, in which players can play at a convenient time and with rivals, whom they themselves will choose. Online shkhamats allow you to play with both people and computer programs.

Tournament Rules

Professional requirements for competitions led to the creation of tournament rules, uniform for all players.Their acceptance influenced the basic rules of the game (touched, take, taking on the aisle, etc.).

Error correction

  • If during the game it is found that the board is located incorrectly, the error should be corrected outside the playing time: the board with the preservation of the position is placed so that the angular white field H1 is to the right of the White player.
  • If it is found that the initial arrangement of the figures was erroneous, the party should be outplayed from the beginning.
  • The player who has made an erroneous (not allowed by the rules) move is obliged to cross, if possible, with the same figure. If the erroneous move is not immediately noticed, the party should be outplayed from this place. In the blitz party, if the player made an erroneous move, and the enemy noticed this, without making a return move, the player counts the defeat.
  • If the player, intending to make a castling, by mistake, first shifted a boat, he must make a boat. If the player made illegal castling (for example, through a broken field), he should make a move to the king instead if such a move is possible.
  • If after the start of the tournament party it is found that the opponents play the figures of the wrong color that should be according to the schedule of the tournament, the party continues and its result is recognized as legal, no replay is carried out.

The ban on refusal

  • The proposal for a draw made by the partner cannot be taken back.
  • A statement made by the player on the delivery (loss) of the party cannot be taken back.
  • The move cannot be taken back (changed) if it was made and the hand was taken away from the figure.

The rules “touched – go” and “took the hand – the move was made”

  • The player, with his course intentionally touching his figure, is obliged to go this figure with this course.
  • The player, with his course intentionally touching someone else's figure, is obliged to take it on this move.
  • Touching his figure, which does not have a move according to the rules, or to someone else's figure, which cannot be taken on this move, does not entail any consequences.
  • An accidental touch of the figure, for example, if the player touches the figure with his hand, making another move, does not entail any consequences.
  • If the player touched several figures that you can walk or that you can take, he must walk the figure to which he touched the first.
  • If the player wants to correct an inaccurately worthwhile figure, he must say “correct” (English.I Adjust , fr.J’Adube ) And only after that to correct the figure. In this case, touching the figure does not entail any consequences. The case is known when during the 1967 interzonal tournament, the Yugoslav grandmaster Milan Matulovich, having made a losing move, said “J’Adouube” and returned the move back. His rival, Istvan Bilel, turned to the judge, but he left the incident without consequences. After this incident, Matulovich received the nickname Zhadubovich.
  • Touching the figures with someone else's course is prohibited.
  • Screaming is considered the course of the king. So When screaming, you must first move the king, then a boat.
  • When the player takes his hand away from the figure after moving to a new field, the move is considered to be made and cannot be changed (if this move complies with the rules). If this course of the pawn moves to the last horizontal, the player, in accordance with the rules (see above), is obliged to replace it with another figure after this and the move will be completed only after the transformation. However, the player is no longer entitled to cross the pawn after the hand is taken away from it. The choice of the figure into which the pawn turns is considered to be done as soon as this figure touched the field of transformation. Similarly, the castling is considered completed after moving the boat, but the course cannot be changed after the hand is taken away from the king. Before the hand is taken away, the player can return the figure to the original field and, if he wants to, make her any other move.

Time control

Since the 19th century, time control has been used, initially with the help of a sand clock. At the end of the 19th century, Wilson designed a mechanical chess clock (1883). The game has the concepts of timekeeping, loss of time, or a draw in the best game situation, but with the worst time, blitz. Nowadays, electronic chess hours are increasingly used.

All official parties (and part of the unofficial) should use time control. For this, special chess hours are used. The player who has made a move presses the clock, stopping his clock and starting the enemy’s watch.

At the moment of the Tournament, the moment of the start of the party, the judge launches the watch of a player playing with white figures, regardless of whether he came or is late. In addition, the rules of the tournament can determine an additional fine for the late player. Ordinary practice is to doubling the time of late; If the player did not begin the party for half the main limit of time, he counts the technical defeat for failure to appear.

The player's time is considered expired if the flag on his watch fell and this fact was noticed by the judge, or noticed one of the players and drew the attention of the judge. At the same time, the player who fell the flag is counted, except for the following cases:

  • If the board is on the board, the setting it won, regardless of whose flag fell.
  • If on the board a Pat or a draw in accordance with the rule of a triple repetition of a position or a rule of 50 moves, the draw is counted.
  • If the flags fell from both players (this can happen when playing with a mechanical clock, if time has expired almost at the same time or if the opponent of the player who was the first to expire the time did not notice the fall of the opponent’s flag and did not stop the watch, but finished his own flag, electronic clock, As a rule, they stop the countdown and give a signal when the time of one of the players expires, when using them, the fall of flags among both rivals is almost impossible), regardless of who has the first time, a draw is counted.
  • If that of the players whose flag did not fall, cannot put the mat in principle, even with the worst game of his enemy, a draw is counted.

There are positions that are obviously losing, in which the losing formally has enough material to put the mat (for example, the queen against the elephant and the pawn – the queen, with rare exceptions, wins). If a player with a winning position fell into a rigid timekeeping (acute lack of time), a losing can last time, hoping that his opponent physically does not have time to make moves or, due to the timewater, will make a gross mistake. Tournament rules can introduce special restrictions to prevent the game “on the flag”.

In some tournaments, if the player made a mistake and set the king under the shah, either did not notice the Shah and left the king under the battle upon the end of his course, or made a different move, impossible according to the rules, the enemy has the right to ask the judge with a short additional time ( Usually – 2 minutes). The wrong move in this case is returned back and a different move is made (taking into account the rule “touched – go”, if possible).

Finally, there are additional technical rules:

  • The button must be pressed with the same hand that is made. Without this, it is difficult to clearly determine what happened earlier – the course or switching of the clock.
  • A player who needs the intervention of a judge (for example, registration of a draw due to a triple repetition of a position) stops the clock. If the judge considers that the player’s claim is clearly unreasonable, he can fine the player by reducing his time or adding time to his enemy.

Chess options

In addition to well -known classical chess described in this article, there are a large number of other options for a chess game. There are national chess options, for example, Syants and Sogi. Some options use additional figures and/or unusual boards, so, the options are known on the boards that are larger in size, on round boards, with figures that combine the moves of the horse and the boats and/or a horse and an elephant, with a magaraja (a figure uniting the moves of a queen and a horse ) Instead of queen, hexagonal chess (played on a hexagonal board consisting of melodic fields).

There are chess for more than two players: three and four-sided chess, in which three or four players (pair or each for themselves) play behind one board, managing each of their set of figures, as well as “team” chess options, where the game is played A team is being conducted on a team on one or more boards, and the actions of more than one player from each team (for example, Swedish chess) affect the course of one board.

Many chess composers, as well as scientists, amateur chess players and professionals, were fond of the invention of new chess options. Kapablanki chess are known, for example, on a 10 × 8 board, with two new figures.Recently, Fisher’s chess has become increasingly popular – a game according to classical rules, but with a random initial arrangement of figures on the last horizontal. In terms of the options, the rules are preserved unchanged (or minimally changed), and only the initial arrangement of figures has been changed. In addition to the already mentioned Fisher chess, these are Kingchs and combat chess.

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